School Safety Protocols: Creating a network Before, During and After a Disaster

Collaboration and Coordination

     The research topic for this week is how to create a network of collaboration and coordination for a school building focused on safety protocols to support effective learning environment for student success. 

     The events of the learning outcomes grants an opportunity to innovate learning outcomes for our future citizens of the island of Puerto Rico. The topic of this week reminded me about the situation that is happening in my island, Puerto Rico. Unfortunately, after hurricane Maria in 2017, the island suffered other natural disasters such as concurrent earthquakes as the pandemic in 2020 rushed into a locked down for the last and concurrent school year (Brondani, 2020). Nonetheless, the situations had gone through a massive time-line of unsafe school protocols for safety, by reacting into the non secured building in which the students currently were taking classes, decreasing the learning outcomes. The right of students in a school building during this time enables safety protocols granting security for everyone who is either working or visiting the school premises. Nonetheless, the different natural events create an outreaching need to maintain the building safe, which stakeholders demand better safety access for students learning environment. 

Annotative Bibliography

I Dewa Ketut Derta Widana, Fetty Asmaniati, Sundring Pantja Djati, & Rahmat Ingkadijaya, (2021). Analysis of Disaster Safe School Level in West Coast of Pandelang 

     Regency, Indonesia. Technium Social Sciences Journal, 20(1). https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.47577/tssj.v20i1.3510

     The researchers conducted a study about a prone area that is suitable for tsunami. The west coast area of the Pandeglang Regency in Indonesia needed further studies about how to create safe schools in this area. The purpose of this study was to analyzed the implementation of disaster safe school in three schools located in a higher risked tsunami area. The instrument was a survey based on the National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB),  focused on the implementation guidelines of disaster safe schools. The researchers found that two of th three schools of the area were suitable for the tsunami protocols but needed to work on the risk reduction curriculum integrated with strengthening for safe schools. The third school lacked of both and suggested further interventions that supported the school needs. Recommendations for this study suggested cooperation with the school personnel, local government, private government, civic organizations, and community to support the holistic approach to make the schools safety. 

      The study showed an important matter about the use of implementation plans and how to address the collaboration and cooperation with local officials and community members to support the school system. This study support possible authentic assessment plans to address the problematic approaches of different sectors based on the needs to maintain a safe learning environment. 

Lane, K. L., Oakes, W. P., & Menzies, H. M. (2021). Considerations for systematic screening PK-12: Universal screening for internalizing and externalizing behaviors in the

     COVID-19 era. Preventing School Failure, 65(3), 275-281. https//doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1080/1045988X.2021.1908216

     The qualitative study address considerations for a systematic screening during the 2020-2021 school year due to COVID-19. The study had six screening questions focused on the purpose of the screening was to gather data according to the behavioral and social emotional aspect of school personnel and students during COVID-19. The screening questionnaire provided the researchers showed a vital response for the educational leaders. The researchers recommended to continue to screen, use multiple sources of data to inform programing, and screen responsibility. Further studies of the researchers suggested explore the psychometric properties of the student risk screen scale for internalizing and externalizing (SRSS_IE) behaviors, to provided clarity on the reliability and validity of this free-access screening tool in the new and varied school context, providing data-informed guidance to educational leaders. 

     This study is significant to address the proper process in screening the personnel during COVID-19. The study had a gap in the literature, which can support further studies about the behaviors of students. Nonetheless, the IRB process in a such research need to be accountable in order to do the study. However, the gap in the literature can use the study to examine the teachers when using the screening questionnaire by increasing participants to see if the information correlates with another population. 

Muñoz, V. A., Carby, B., Abella, E. C., Cardona, O. D., López-Marrero, T., Marchezini, V., Meyreles, L., Olivato, D., Trajber, R., & Wisner, B. (2020). Success, innovation and

      challenge: School safety and disaster education in South America and the Caribbean. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 44 https://doi-

     org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101395

     The multiple case study address school safety and disaster education from Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. The purpose of the study explored an understanding of natural disasters prevention preparedness. In the study, Puerto Rico showed a reflection upon the historical event memorial of hurricane Maria by primary and undergraduate students. The case study from Brazil described the work in school curriculum skills and research competencies at the high school level. The Brazilian case study encouraged school to become innovators for knowledge using strategic plans instead on concentrating disseminating information. The case study focused on the efforts to support the university building. Based on the case studies, the reflection upon the researchers gathered the model of the three pillars of comprehensive school safety, which includes safe learning facilities, school disaster management, and risk, reduction and resilience education. Limitations of the study includes to support efforts on the tools of assessments are limited and need proper guidance to address the matter. Other limitations of the study showed there is no retrofitting programs which needed restructured based on the climate change and the different hazards that happened in different countries. Lastly, the study found limitations on the need of a global programs for safer schools. The researchers agreed that having a global program will support the encounter of innovative strategies to support a safe school building for a safer learning environment. 

Based on the information form this study, the data collection from each case study supports the need to address the main concepts when addressing the situation at the event of a disaster. The effort of understanding the real life events needs to gather the appropriate guidelines to address the situation. This study can support further studies among all the included countries and others who relates into the same events. 

Spillane, J. P., & Shirrell, M. (2018). The schoolhouse network: How school buildings affect teacher collaboration. Education Next, 18(2), 68-73. 

     The qualitative study address the effectiveness of teachers collaboration in a school building. The semi-structured interviewed focused on the interaction between math teachers in a school building without questions about peer proximity but 27 out of 33 participants stated that proximity was needed with another math teacher for collaboration. The study also add into more participants from 13 other schools insisting about the need of proximity with another elementary math teacher for collaboration. The study suggested that even separated in a self-contained classroom, the collaboration will likely share if they are next to each other.

This study suggested the need of collaboration between teachers in the same school building. The need of collaboration between teachers remotely should be considered to explore weather the teacher could communicate effectively like they do in a school building. From both points of view, one can understand if the concept of communication is considered the same or if they were different, how to address the problem. 

Zaki, G.R., Tayel, K.Y., Reda, M. M., Mahmoud, A. H., Labib E. I., (2018). Evaluation of leading safety performance of primary school buildings in Alexandria, Egypt: Cross-

     Sectional study. Journal of High Institute of Public Health, 48(2), pp. 77-84https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.21608.JHIPH.2018.19913

     The quantitative study aimed to evaluate the safety performance of private, public and experimental schools in Alexandria Egypt. The cross-sectional study consisted of 30 primary schools using a two inspection checklist that included school building safety inspection checklist and classroom inspection checklist. The checklist was reviewed and coded, validated and calculated. The results of the study showed many safety violations were ongoing in primary schools, which will caused a reduction of the safety performance and consequently lacked safety management. The researchers recommended to activate the licensing and inspection roles of the different operational departments with the safety standards, financial allocations necessary for safety equipment, and considered categories of maintaining the school building including housekeeping, maintenance, fire safety, electrical safety, emergency preparedness, ground safety and classroom safety. 

     The research from this study responds to many of the primary schools that have issues around the world. The potential solution depends on the ongoing process from the school leaders. Therefore, this study provides an input on how real primary school survive, while there is a need of collaboration between stakeholders to support a safe learning environment.

Reference: 

Brondani, L., (2020). An ‘F’ for 2020 graduates, ‘Covid-19 class’. Question/Cuestión, 1(junio), e371. https://doi.org/10.24215/16696581e371 

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